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Pet coke

Petroleum coke (petcoke) is a byproduct of the oil refining process. As refineries worldwide seek to operate more efficiently and extract more gasoline and other high value fuels from each barrel of crude oil, a solid carbon material known as petcoke is produced.

The physical and chemical characteristics of petcoke are a function of the crude oil and refining technology used by the refinery. Physically, petcoke can be hard or relatively soft. It can resemble large sponges with numerous pores, or it can resemble small spheres, ranging in size from a grain of sand to a large marble. Chemically, petcoke can include a variety of elements and metals in a wide range of concentrations. Depending on these physical and chemical characteristics, petcoke is typically used either in an energy application as a source of British Thermal Units (BTUs), or in an industrial application as a source of carbon.

Fuel grade petcoke represents roughly 80 percent of worldwide petcoke production.  Fuel grade petcoke is typically very high in heating value (BTUs per pound), produces virtually no ash when burned, and is most commonly used in electric power plants and cement kilns. 

As a carbon source, petroleum coke is used to manufacture:

  • Energy

  • Steel

  • Aluminum

  • Automobiles

  • High-impact plastics

Sulfur

Sulfur is a major by-product of oil refining and gas processing.

Most crude oil grades contain some sulfur, most of which must be removed during the refining process to meet strict sulfur content limits in refined products.  

Most of the sulfur produced by refineries is sold into the petrochemicals market where it is used to make sulfuric acid.

Processing of high-sulfur natural gas is also a large source of sulfur supply.

我国进口硫磺来源排名前5的国家分别是阿联酋、沙特阿拉伯、韩国、阿曼、伊朗,占比分别为17.2%、15.4%、12.2%、8.9%和8.6%。

LPG

Also known as: Liquefied petroleum gas, commercial propane

LPG refers to the lightest (lowest density) liquid fuels produced by a refinery, primarily C3s (propane) and some C4s (butane). As a product, it typically refers to commercial propane, which is primarily propane with a small amount of butane.

 

The propane and butane blended into LPG can come from many different process units in the refinery, as well as from outside sources such as natural gas plants (from separating NGLs) or steam crackers (from C4 raffinates).

LPG (or commercial propane) typically contains ~90%+ propane and less than 10% butane. 

Naphtha

What is Naphtha

Naphtha is a type of hydrocarbon mixture that is typically derived from the refining of crude oil or the distillation of coal tar. It is a highly flammable, colorless to light yellow liquid with a strong, pungent odor.  

石脑油(naphtha)又叫化工轻油,是石油产品之一,是以原油或其他原料加工生产的用于化工原料的轻质油,主要用作重整和化工原料。因用途不同有各种不同的馏程,中国规定馏程为初馏点至220℃左右。作为生产芳烃的重整原料时,采用70℃-145℃馏分,称轻石脑油;用作溶剂时,则称溶剂石脑油;以生产高辛烷值汽油为目的时,采用70℃-180℃馏分,称重石脑油;来自煤焦油的芳香族溶剂也称重石脑油或溶剂石脑油。

中国是石脑油的净进口国。 我国石脑油市场需求总量不断上升,国产石脑油供给不足,使得进口不断递增, 2021年我国石脑油进口达760.97万吨。

我国主要从韩国、阿尔及利亚、阿联酋、卡尔塔、俄罗斯、印度等地区进口石脑油,其中从韩国进口占比最高,2021年进口量为160.34万吨,进口量占比21.07%。

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